Experiments show that very high temperatures (above 900ºC) can be achieved in outdoor conditions but that it is difficult to reach full calcination of bone on small pyres: some parts are white (calcined) while others remain black (charred).Results indicate that, as expected, bone structure changes drastically after The burning of a body after death.deposit containing cremated human bone, found during excavations by Oxford Archaeology in advance of a new pipeline at Langford, Essex (southeast England), has been dated to the Mesolithic period.

radiocarbon dating cremated bone-90radiocarbon dating cremated bone-30radiocarbon dating cremated bone-32

Nick Gilmour, who lead the excavation, said “” Three struck flints were also found within the same pit.

Dr Barry Bishop, who studied the flint from the site, confirmed that these could technologically belong to the Mesolithic period.

The widespread use of cremation in the past has resulted in abundant charred and calcined human remains in the archaeological record. Hard material of trees used for burning, building, carving, tools and weapons. A large area of trees, woodland Catala: fusta Česky: Deutsch: 1. Wald Español: madera Français: Italiano: legno Latviešu: 1. Once the pyres were lit, the animal bone pieces were placed on the difference fires and left there until full calcination, until it started to rain (a hazard of outdoor experiments in Britain! The fires were maintained until no more wood was available.

Their complex structure and chemical composition as well as the incomplete state of knowledge regarding how bone changes when burned, however, has meant that cremated bone has often been left out of biomolecular studies, but have a long history of bioarchaeological investigation (for example Mc Kinley 1997). Much research has since been carried out in order to try and understand why cremated bone seems to provide reliable radiocarbon dates (Van Strydonck et al. During burning, the flesh and skin became black before disappearing completely.

It took two hours and a half for it to burn completely.

First, the skin turned brown and the chicken looked like a typical Sunday roast for about ten minutes before starting to turn black.

Hard dense tissue forming the skeleton Catala: os Česky: Deutsch: 1. In this study several cremations were carried out outdoors using ‘old’ fuels.

In order to study and understand cremated bone, it is crucial to conduct experiments in real environmental conditions.

mirušā dedzināšana 2.kremācija Lietuvių: Nederlands: crematie, lijkverbranding Norsk: kremering Polski: Português: cremação Română: incinerare Русский: Suomi: "Hard dense tissue forming the skeleton Catala: os Česky: Deutsch: 1. The second of the three ages (Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age), during which smelting and casting were developed Catala: edat del bronze Česky: doba bronzová Deutsch: Bronzezeit Español: edad del bronce Français: âge du bronze Italiano: etá del bronzo Latviešu: bronzas laikmets Lietuvių: bronzos amžius Nederlands: bronstijd Norsk: bronsealderen Polski: epoka brązu Português: idade do bronze Română: epoca bronzului Русский: бронзовый век Suomi: pronssikausi " and Roman period (Mc Kinley 1997; Wahl 2008). The animal samples included a cow tibia, two pig ribs, a foot and a shoulder, two lamb legs, a whole chicken, and two fish vertebral columns.

In Britain, more particularly, cremation was practised, contemporaneously with inhumation, from the Early Neolithic until the Saxon period, and was the dominant burial practice during the Middle Bronze Age and Roman-British period (Davies & Mates 2005). The pig foot and shoulder still retained all flesh and skin and were specially chosen, together with the whole chicken, to represent as closely as possible the remains of a recently deceased individual.

This deposit shows that people had the required understanding of fire and pyre technology to achieve the high temperature required for complete combustion of the corpse – probably greater than 600 degrees centigrade.