Familiar to us as the black substance in charred wood, as diamonds, and the graphite in “lead” pencils, carbon comes in several forms, or isotopes.One rare form has atoms that are 14 times as heavy as hydrogen atoms: carbon-14, or C ratio gets smaller.Also, the Genesis flood would have greatly upset the carbon balance.

This also has to be corrected for.[2] Second, the ratio of C in the atmosphere at that time to be estimated, and so partial calibration of the “clock” is possible.

Accordingly, carbon dating carefully applied to items from historical times can be useful.

Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering—the reason Jesus came into the world (See Six Days? He said, This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago.

It makes no sense at all if man appeared at the end of billions of years.

These techniques are applied to igneous rocks, and are normally seen as giving the time since solidification.

The isotope concentrations can be measured very accurately, but isotope concentrations are not dates.

The strength of the Earth's magnetic field affects the amount of cosmic rays entering the atmosphere.

A stronger magnetic field deflects more cosmic rays away from the Earth.

These techniques, unlike carbon dating, mostly use the relative concentrations of parent and daughter products in radioactive decay chains.